Recently, a new cancer vaccine (non-autologous) for dogs has been developed and is in clinical trials. Unlike cancer vaccines which are autologous in nature, this new vaccine is based on mutations which are common among various cancers which occur in dogs. This vaccine is based on neo-antigens (errors) which are produced during RNA transcription and splicing. These errors can produce frameshift antigens which the immune system may recognize. The vaccine incorporates these neo-antigens and in theory may provide a preventative vaccine for canine cancer. More information can be found at Calviri.
Veterinary Cancer Vaccines
Neo-antigen Dog Cancer Vaccine
Canine Melanoma Vaccine
There is a therapeutic DNA-based vaccine for canine melanoma. A DNA-based vaccine is based on the cancer’s genetics, and helps the immune system recognize a protein on melanoma tumor cells. More information about the canine melanoma vaccine can be found here: Canine Melanoma Vaccine.
Autologous Cancer Vaccine – Immunotherapy (Cancer ImmunoTherapy)
Veterinary cancer vaccines have become more popular in the last decade. Some of these cancer therapies are referred to as autologous vaccines.
What is an Autologous Vaccine?
Autologous cancer vaccines are vaccines in which a portion of the patient’s own tumor is excised and then subsequently modified into a vaccine. Then, the cancer vaccine is administered back to the same patient. The term autologous indicates the patient’s own tissue or cells are used in the process.
How do Cancer Vaccines Work?
Since cancers may have unique signatures, such as patient tumor specific antigens, cancer vaccines derived from a patient’s own tumor cells are intended to provoke a patient specific immune response against their own tumor cells. Cancer vaccines based on this autologous approach have also been used with other drugs or biologics, such as checkpoint inhibitors or chemotherapeutic agents, in an effort to provide multi-modal therapy against the pet’s cancer.
Veterinary Cancer Vaccine Links
Links to Veterinary Cancer Vaccine Publications